3D Printed Polylactic Acid Scaffold For Dermal Tissue Engineering Application: The Fibroblast Proliferation in vitro
Dermal fibroblasts are mesenchymal cells that produce extracellular matrix. Fibroblasts play an important role in the skin wound healing process and skin bioengineering. The aim of this study is to evaluate the behavior of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds in terms of biocompatibility and toxicity on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Scaffolds were prepared with the PLA filament using a custom made fused deposition modeling (FDM) printer. We fabricated scaffolds with two different pore sizes (35% and 40%). HDFs were seeded at different densities on PLA scaffolds. The cell growth was measured by WST-1 colorimetric assay after 12 and 18 days of seeding HDFs on 3D PLA scaffolds. The morphology and the adhesion property of HDFs were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). HDFs showed a significant cell proliferation in 3D printed PLA scaffolds. The cell proliferation was highest at a density of 4 x 104 cells per well. SEM images showed that HDFs attached the surfaces of the scaffolds and filled the inter-fiber gaps. Our results showed that PLA scaffolds fabricated by 3D bioprinting is a promising candidate for HDF seeding and could have a potential application wound healing or personalized drug trials.